Organizacionnaâ psihologiâ (Organizational Psychology), 2020 (4) en-us Copyright 2020 Mon, 04 Jan 2021 04:01:29 +0300 Editorial We present to our readers the next issue of the journal "Organizational Psychology".The editorial board and staff of the editorial board of the journal "Organizational Psychology" grieve together with the family and friends of Sergey Alekseevich Chernyshev, a member of the editorial board of our journal. Our obituary “Teacher. Personality. Citizen”.Under the heading Research in organizational psychology, you will find four articles covering a wide variety of topics - servant leadership, employee emotional well-being, organizational creativity, and the value orientations of family business owners. “Mediating role of trust on the relationship between servant leadership and team commitment among the employees of IT sector in south India” (in English) of our Indian colleagues Asi Reddy and Apparaju Kamesh. "Emotional and personal well-being as a predictor of the social perception characteristics among socionomic and technonomic specialists" by the Ural researcher L. V. Karapetyan. “Individual, personal, and contextual predictors of organizational creativity in Russia” by an international team of authors: Nadezhda Lebedeva, Ekaterina Bushina, Peter Schmidt. An interregional Russian team of authors presented the article “Black cat in a dark room: are the value orientations of family and non-family business owners different?” by Julia Murzina, Vladimir Pozniakov, Sergey Dyachkov.The Organizational psychology in practice part opens with the article of Bella Yasko and Boris Kazarin “Personality of healthcare professionals: methodological justification of model through study”. A team of authors from Siberia (Olga Andronnikova, Yuliya Perevozkina, Andrey Seryy, Mikhail Yanitskiy, Tatyana Petrovskaya) share their experience in diagnosing toxic leadership in the article "Role models of heads, showing a toxic leadership in a complex situation management solutions".In the Reviews section we discuss the phenomenon of proactive coping behavior, and also raise the question of the possibility of studying the school as an organization. Study articles by E. S. Starchenkova "Phenomenon of proactive coping behavior in occupational health psychology" (in English) and "Conceptualization of a school as an organization: a literature review" by R. K. Nesmeyanova and S. A. Lipatov.There are two articles in the First steps heading in this issue. “Development and validation of the Job Perfectionism Scale” by Alena Zolotareva and “The roots and practical application of the behavioral economics for organizations” by Misha Zeldin, Oleg Davydov, Irina Penkina and Artem Tsiklinsky.Under the heading Organizational psychology in dialogues and discussions you will find articles on organizational values and the problem of learning competencies. The first is an article by Ivan Malbašić “Through balanced organizational values towards purpose-driven organizations” (in English). The second article "Researching professional competencies: a critical review of approaches to research, processing and interpretation of data" by Vladimir Tolochek and Anna Mashkova.The Conferences section contains the announcement of the XXII April International Scientific Conference, which is held annually by the Higher School of Economics. Teacher. Personality. Citizen. In memory of S. A. Chernyshev Alexei Sergeevich Chernyshev passed away (10/16/1936 - 12/15/2020), Soviet and Russian psychologist, Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Professor, member of the Presidium of the Russian Psychological Society, Honored Worker of the Higher School of the Russian Federation, Full Member of the International Academy of Psychological Sciences, academician of the Academy of Humanities of Russia, world-renowned scientist. Mediating role of trust on the relationship between servant leadership and team commitment among the employees of IT-sector in south India Purpose. Servant Leadership, a much talked about concept, is a new area of research in understanding leadership in organizations. Servant leadership is gaining its importance across industries worldwide. The term "servant leadership" coined by Robert K. Greenleaf hinting at serving helping the subordinates rather leading in the traditional sense. The purpose of this study is to investigate the existence of servant leadership in Indian IT industry, also to determine the extent that employee job related attitudes namely, job satisfaction, team commitment and team effectiveness associated with the perception of servant leadership in IT industries of South India in a psychological climate termed as trustin leader. Servant leadership being anecdotal in nature lacks sound base of theory and empirical evidence.The literature throws light on the historical background of servant leadership, key characteristics and contrast between the most followed leadership styles and servant leadership in the modern business era. Methodology. The study attempts to find empirical evidence for relationship between servant leadership, trust and job related attitudes. The researcher adopted Servant Organizational Leadership Assessment (SOLA) Instrument by J. A. Laub revised by Sharon Dury in 2004, Team Commitment Survey (TCS) by H. Bennett (2000), for data collection. Mediation analysis used to determine the level of association between the variables. Findings. Sample of 568 supports the empirical evidence for servant leadership in Indian context with the fitment of servant leadership model along with the followers’ job attitudesand the mediating role of trust in leader in improving the association among the variables furthermore. Values of the results. The study concludes the supportiveness of servant leaders in enhancing the level of team commitment in the industry. Emotional and personal well-being as a predictor of the social perception characteristics among socionomic and technonomic specialists The challenges of the modern world are primarily addressed to the professional community, since the main burden of overcoming the crisis caused by the pandemic will fall on the working-age segment of the population. In this regard, the search for opportunities to optimize the resource system of representatives of the professional segment, including improving internal well-being and restoring social perception systems, becomes particularly relevant. Purpose. To study how an emotional and personal well-being effects on the social perception among specialists in “human - human” (socionomic profile, SP) and “human — technic” (techonomic profile, TP) occupational areas, within and outside their zone of interaction (micro-level), and outside this zone (macro level). Study design. The sample consisted of 715 people: 339 representatives of SP and 376 specialists of TP. Research methods:1) the technique “Self-assessment of Emotional and Personal Well-Being”, in which respondents ratedt hemselves on nine scales; 2) the technique “Emotional and Personal Well-Being”, which involves the assessment of the same nine scales of emotional and personal well-being of parents (father and mother); 3) a method for identifying attitudes to people, where respondents were asked to evaluate 24 personal traits at the micro and macro levels. Findings. It was found that emotional and personal well-being is more inherent in SP specialists, and in this professional group it is a predictor of social perception at both the micro and macro levels. The attitude of the TP-specialists on the micro level is determined by not only their self-esteem, emotional and personal well-being, but also assessment of emotionaland personal well-being of parents, especially mothers. On the macro level, in this professional group,the influence of assessment of emotional and personal well-being of parents appears, especially the father. Both professional groups are characterized by the phenomena of ingroup bias and ingroup stereotyping. Conclusions. The obtained data allow us to consider emotional and personal well-beingas a predictor of some aspects of social perception among the socionomic and technonomic specialists. The value of the results. The obtained data can be used to improve the psychological climate in working groups and optimize the internal well-being of specialists. Individual, personal, and contextual predictors of organizational creativity in Russia Purpose. The article is devoted to the study of personality and contextual determinants of innovative behavior in Russia. An analysis of the results of previous research allowed us to considervalues, self-efficacy, social and organizational contexts as predictors of innovative organizational behavior. Method. A representative survey was attended by 1,456 working respondents from the Central and North Caucasian Federal Districts (47% of respondents are men, 53% are women). Toc ollect empirical data, we used: 1) The PVQ-R value questionnaire developed by Schwartz (Schwartz, 2012), 2) A scale for studying innovative organizational behavior, 3) Self-efficacy was measured int hree points, 4) three questions were used to measure Individual and Perceived Trust. Findings. The data obtained were subjected to mathematical-statistical processing using the MPLUS program. It was found that the values of Openness to change are positively, and the values of Conservation are negatively effect on innovative behavior in organizations; perceived self-efficacy moderates the impact of Openness to Change values on innovative behavior in organizations; type of region and organizational context are predictors of innovative behavior; age, gender and educational level have both direct and indirect effects on individual values and self-efficacy. Value of results. The results of the study make itpossible to supplement and expand ideas about innovative behavior in the organizational context in Russia, taking into account value preferences, level of trust, and socio-demographic characteristics. Black cat in a dark room: are the value orientations of family and non-family business owners different? Purpose. For our country, the growth of small business is one of the strategic directions of development. As the experience of European countries shows, the family business is the basis of its small forms. However, the question of psychological research of the specifics of family business is onlybeing raised in Russian science. The aim of this study was to compare the value orientations of small family and non-family business owners. Methodology. Factual base: entrepreneurs of micro and small business of family form of management — 63 people, of non-family form — 68 people. Groups are comparable in gender, age, education, religion of entrepreneurs; the age of the business and family; the number of children. In terms of methodology, we used the author’s approach to research — a projective in-depth interview “Value orientations of entrepreneurs in the field of family and business.” The results were processed in the R program using the χ2 method, τ Kendall’s correlation analysis and logistic regression. Findings. The study revealed the small number of significant differences in thevalue orientations of owners of two forms of business. So, out of 213 value variables, only 13 were significantly distinguishable in two types of business (p-value ≤ 0.05). The logistic regression model atthe level of 70.2% made it possible to identify significant value orientations that predict the likelihood of starting a family business. Negatively connected with this form of business were the value orientations “Matrimonial Love”, “Decency in relations with the spouse” and “Public relations”. The main conclusionsdrawn from the results obtained were: VO of owners of family and non-family businesses are poorly differentiated; management in family firms is more intuitive, less formalized than in non-family firms; a family business is a business of “partnership” and pragmatic family relationships (not conjugal love); with low external communication. Value of results. Thus, the family business in our country is missing out on its key advantage in the market: does not support or convey the traditional values of business families that could improve business reputation in the perception of consumers. The results of this research can be used to plan measures of state support for family business by helping the process of self-identification of this form of business. Personality of healthcare professionals: methodological justification of model through study The purpose of the research is to study the managerial competencies and leadership styles of top — and line-level healthcare managers that form specific properties, abilities, skills and their variable manifestations as components of the substructure of personal qualities determined by experience and the process of professionalization in the model of a doctor’s personality. Method. The sample consisted of 135 participants: chief physicians (26 people); deputy chief physicians (32 people); heads of departments (47 people); medical experts (30 people). Methods used: analysisof regulatory documents; expert analysis; psychodiagnostics (M. Woodcock and D. Francis’ Test questionnaire “Analysis of their limitations”; questionnaire “Style of managerial decision-making” by A. Karpov and E. Markova). Results. The analysis of the Professional standard “Specialist in the field ofhealth organization and public health” found general professional competencies that are the activity determinants of properties-abilities-skills in the structure of a specific segment “Specialist in the field of health organization and public health” in the model of a doctor’s personality. These include: management of all types of activities in the organization; organization of various forms of business communication; management decision-making; implementation of internal control of activities; continuous improvement of professional knowledge; formation, maintenance and development of corporate culture. Features of professional subjects of top and line management as determinants of variable properties — abilities-skills are defined. Cluster analysis identified three submodels of thepersonality “Doctor-Manager”: “Chief doctor”; “Deputy chief doctor”; “Head of the clinical division”, which can be considered as verification of the system model of the “Clinician-Doctor” personality. The value of the results. The obtained results expand the understanding of the variety of approaches to the analysis of the phenomenology of the system “man — profession” by considering the scientific and methodological resource of the concept of modeling the personality of a professional (specialist). The concept of “Model professional personality”: it is an open system formed by complementary interaction invariant, specific and varied formations in which functionally related properties, abilities, skills, which are determined by the process of professiogenesis and personality of the expert as a subject oflabor. The model can serve as a source of necessary information for an organizational psychologist or HR-Manager when developing local models of a specialist in an organization. Role models of heads, showing a toxic leadership in a complex situation management solutions The purpose of this article is to study the informative characteristics of role models ofmanagers who have constructive forms of management and toxic leadership. The study design assumeda description by each leader (N = 166, 100 men and 66 women, average age 44.2) of the situation of the complex managerial decisions that were encountered in his past experience. After identifying theregistry of complex management decisions with managers, a number of diagnostic procedures were carried out, including testing on three questionnaires and role-based modeling of the situation of a complex management decision. Data analysis was carried out by combining the situation of a complex managerial decision, role model, perceptions, and motive depending on the gender of managers according to the χ2 Pearson criterion. Then, the influence of the role model on leadership style and victim behavior (one-way analysis of variance — ANOVA) was studied. Findings. The use of analysis of variance showed that, depending on the preferred role model, managers differ in management styles and victim behavior. A statistically significant difference was found in the conniving and collegial components (p < 0.01), as well as in all parameters of the tendency to victimization behavior (p < 0.04). Conclusions. In a situation of a difficult managerial decision, the heads of educational institutions prefer role models associated with the functions of control and leadership. Half of the female respondents are inclined to use the male role model. Leaders showing the roles of mother and father in a difficult managerialsituation are characterized by a tendency to hypersocial behavior (p < 0.02) and have constructive leadership styles. Leaders with a role model of a hero and a trickster in a difficult managerial situation demonstrate a victim behavior style and are prone to demonstrating toxic leadership. Another nonconstructivel eadership model is the role of the boy, which is associated with such parameters of victim behavior as dependence and uncriticality (p < 0.001). The value of the results. The article presents data to show the importance of role models in the behavior of managers of educational institutions, highlighted the role of victim characteristics in demonstrating toxic leadership. Phenomenon of proactive coping behavior in occupational health psychology The article is devoted to the review of modern studies on the phenomenon of proactive coping behavior in occupational health psychology. Occupational health is viewed as a strategic resource related to ensuring the effectiveness, safety, and reliability of professional activity of labor subjects, improving the quality of their professional and personal lives, as well as ensuring professional longevity. The article presents the history of the concept development of proactive coping behavior from the position of the cognitive-transactional stress theory. The relationship between the concepts of proactivity, proactive behavior and proactive coping is considered. The structure of proactive coping behavior and methods of its study are presented. The role of temporal factors in shaping and changinghealth-related behavior, as well as barriers to healthy behavior, are highlighted. Basic theoretical modelsaimed at explaining, understanding, and changing health-related behavior are discussed. The results of research on proactivity and proactive coping behavior in organizational psychology and occupational health psychology are analyzed. Personal, professional, and organizational factors of proactive coping are presented. The interrelationships of proactive coping behavior with characteristics of subjective representations of professional difficult situations, organizational stress, and occupational stress, states of reduced working capacity, burnout, and occupational health indicators are shown. The conclusion is made that proactive coping behavior can be considered as an important positive predictor of the employee’s optimal functioning at both individual and organizational levels. The problem of the formation and development of proactive coping behavior is considered, and an overview of training programs for proactive coping behavior is presented. The directions and prospects for further research are discussed. Conceptualization of a school as an organization: a literature review Purpose. Modern ideas about the school as an organization are analyzed and systematized in the article. The relevance of the study is due to the fact that at present, at the legislative level, the school has come to be regarded as an educational organization. This formulation opens up the prospect of studying this social institution from the perspective of organizational psychology. Findings. The metaphors and models of the school as a social organization are described, the analogies of the educational and production process are analyzed. The key efficiency indicators of the school are highlighted and the actual problems of interaction between the main participants in the educational process: teachers, students, parents and administration are revealed in detail. The specificity of the organization of school work is analyzed, the importance of ensuring the synchronization of goals, values and a common vision for creating and maintaining a favorable atmosphere in the school organization issubstantiated. The role of the informal structure of the school is denoted — the organizational culture. Conclusions. The conducted literary analysis suggests that the study of the problems of the school as an organization should be carried out in the paradigm of organizational culture. This approach will provide a correct comprehensive understanding of the context of social interaction of participants in the educational process, coordination of their joint work for the successful implementation of all goalsset for the school. The value of the results. This area of research is still under developed in domesticworks, nevertheless, it can be argued that the need to take into account the organizational culture of the school will allow a new look at the internal and external processes of its activities. The development of research in this direction is promising, because makes it possible to reach a qualitatively new level of progressive transformation of the school system in our country. Development and validation of the Job Perfectionism Scale Purpose. The aim of this study was to develop and validate of the Job Perfectionism Scale. Method. The participants were 157 adult employees aged 23 to 69 years with the work experience 1 to 44 years. In addition to the Job Perfectionism Scale, all participants completed measures assessing work addiction and professional motivation. Results. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-dimensional structure of the Job Perfectionism Scale with significant negative correlation between subscales (.50 ≤ r < .85), verifying construct, nomological, and discriminant validity of the questionnaire. Positive job perfectionism was positively correlated with autonomous professional motivation and was negatively correlated with work addiction and controlled professional motivation, whereas negative job perfectionism was negatively correlated with autonomous professional motivation and was positively correlated with work addiction and controlled professional motivation (all rs > .30), supporting convergent and divergent validity of the questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were .82 and .83 for the positive job perfectionism subscale and .83 for the negative job perfectionism subscale, providing internal reliability of the questionnaire. Conclusion. The Job Perfectionism Scale isa valid and reliable instrument. Value of the results. The Job Perfectionism Scale can be recommended as a new instrument in the field of labor psychology and organizational psychology. The roots and practical application of the behavioral economics for organizations The purpose of this article is to make a critical review of behavioral economics. In the articlewas identified the path of its scientific development and were highlighted general ideological and methodological application principles. Ethical issues and the issue of effectiveness are presented. The practical tools for paternalistic behavior change is becoming more widespread and complementsthe traditional one. Behavioral economics is an interdisciplinary area of the social sciences, primarily combining experimental economics and psychology, based on the recognition of human limited rationality. A number of Nobel laureates R. Thaler, D. Kahneman, R. Schiller, D. Duflo and scientists D. Ariely, K. Sanstein, S. Bernarzi are actively involved in specialized consulting agencies. From the point of view of organizational psychology tasks — a deviations from optimal behavior need correction. The article defines the current position on the intervention in real behavior and the implementation of the “nudge” policy. The study of data and biases allows us to build a predictable choice architecture.That is demonstrated by examples from Google, Behavioral Insights, Save More Tomorrow, Vizion Zero, NPO, etc. The article describes the applied logical models for considering human behavior and frameworks MINDSPACE, EAST. Behavioral economics is in demand to build evidence-based solutions to organizational and management problems. Through balanced organizational values towards purpose-driven organizations Purpose. The purpose of this article is to highlight the growing phenomenon of purpose-driven organizations and to explore the role of organizational values in the creation of such organizations. Given that there are different approaches to managing organizational values, particular attention is given to their need for balance, in the sense that the organization simultaneously promotes and develops values from different value categories. Approach. This paper presents the results of some recent research showing that today (1) the largest and most influential companies worldwide are managing their values in balanced way and that (2) managing values in a balanced way improves organizational effectiveness. Findings. Balanced values are helping organizations to focus on their key stakeholders and bring attention to the purpose of their businesses. Originality. This paper contributes to the understanding that the traditional old management logic is evolving into the new logic of purpose — modern businessmust produce a win-win result(s) for everyone rather than just for selected privileged stakeholders. The key to achieving this is focusing on organizational purpose. Researching professional competencies: a critical review of approaches, processing and interpretation of data Purpose: analysis of the methodological and organizational aspects of research work (R&D) in a modern organization on the example of studying the choice of competencies by experts (managers — leaders of the lower and middle management level). Methods: scientific literature analysis, empirical research, methodological reflection of the work experience, the results obtained, the possibilities of increasing their heuristic potential. Research base: large commercial companies (Ekaretinburg Sity); N = 103. Findings. “Reference” lists of competencies presented in foreign sources are not complete, complete, universal. Optimized lists of competencies (empirically identified on representative groups of Russian managers) are more adequate. In the optimized list of 29 competencies, three groups of qualities are distinguished (allocated at least 66%, 50%, 40-20% of experts and allocated only in isolated cases). Three groups of competencies differ in the frequency of their allocation by experts, in the tightness of interconnections and form three levels (or structure and substructures) in the general organization of competencies. The central level (or structure) can be distinguished as the “core”, the other two as “shells”. There is a pronounced preference in the assessments of competencies by representatives of different groups of experts. Conclusions. The working hypotheses were confirmed. 1. Research methods, revealed scientific facts, the described properties of psychological objects are in a relationship of mutual conditioning. The interdependence of the components of research and development determines not only the possibilities of scientific research, but also inevitable limitations (in the adequacy of the description of phenomena, the allocation of their properties, relations, the prospects for evolution, etc.). 2. Attention to artifacts allows us to highlight possible options for further options for the analysis of empirical data. 3. By expanding the options for analyzing arrays of empiricaldata, you can increase their heuristic value. It also summarizes: Field research is prone to blunders and systemic errors. Some of them can be corrected through modeling (using different variants of analysisof empirical databases). Examples of methods of increasing the potential of the collected data are given: 1) fixing the names of the subjects, their “coordinates”; 2) establishing constructive professional contacts with all participants in the process of collecting empirical material; 3) communicating the research results to all participants in the process of collecting material (in an adequate form) and requesting “feedback”. The XXII April International Scientific Conference The XXII April International Scientific Conference on the Development of Economy and Society, held by the National Research University Higher School of Economics, will be held from 13 to 23 April 2021. Chairman of the AMNK Program Committee — HSE Academic Supervisor Professor E. G. Yasin. The conference is dedicated to a wide range of topical issues of the country’s economic and social development. The main part of the speeches at the AMNK are scientific reports of Russian and foreign scientists. An important part of the conference program are special events that are held in the format of plenary sessions and round tables with the participation of members of the Government of the Russian Federation, government officials, business representatives, Russian and foreign experts.