OrganizacionnaĆ¢ psihologiĆ¢ (Organizational Psychology), 2022 (3) en-us Copyright 2022 Fri, 30 Sep 2022 02:35:23 +0300 Editorial We present our journal’s new edition Issue No. 3, 2022.The section «Research in Organizational Psychology» is represented by four articles by our foreign colleagues — authors from India, Jordan and Pakistan. The propensity factors of university employees are studied in the article by S. Altahat and Y. Alsafadi “How ethical leadership and incivilitytolerance affect intention to sabotage at Jordanian universities?” The relationship between the fulfillment of the psychological contract and organizational civic behavior of employees turned out to be the focus of the research attention of the authors of the article “Perceived organisational support as a mediator of the relationship between psychological contract and organisational citizenship behaviour” — S. Mohanty and S. Panigrahi. The interest of researchers U. Zafar and A. Mahmud attracted the phenomenon of ostracismin labor collectives, which they described in their article «Role of workplace ostracism and self-esteemon workplace deviance.» The problem of job satisfaction among representatives of emotional labor israised in their article “Mediating role of deep and surface acting between display rules and job satisfaction among customer services representatives” by A. Adil, A. Kamal and I. Ghulam.In the section «Organizational psychology in practice» you will find two articles presentingqualitative and quantitative approaches in organizational psychology. The topic of mistakes made by young specialists in the workplace is touched upon by K. V. Barannikov and F. S. Ismagilova in the article “Interaction between managers and young professionals about their professional mistakes: An analysis using the focus group method”. The relationship between organizational social capital and commitment among Pakistani bank employees is traced by an international team of authors consisting of N. V. Volkova,M. B. Shahzada, V. A. Chiker and L. G. Pochebut in the article “How can organizational social capitalcontribute to commitment profiles: evidence from Pakistani financial firms.”V. I. Kabalina and A. V. Makarova reveal a wide panorama of the study of the phenomenon of personnel angagement in their article “Employee engagement: systematization of approaches to the definition andmeasurement” in the “Reviews” section.The section “First steps” is presented by the article “Adaptation of the work alienation measurement questionnaire for the russian-speaking sampling” by A. A. Kozhina and L. V. Vinokurov.The section “Organizational psychology in dialogues, discussions” contains an article by N. A. Chernyavskaya, O. A. Usacheva, N. Yu. Temnikova, N. G. Meshchanova, E. A. Filippova “Communicative and psychological portrait of a female leader."”The “Literary Guide” section is represented by the article “A holistic view of unethicalpro-organizational behavior: A literature review” by Chinese authors A. Hushk, Ch. Zhentian, Y. Hui.Please, enjoy the reading! How ethical leadership and incivility tolerance affect intention to sabotage at Jordanian universities? Purpose. The mediating roles of tolerance to workplace incivility between ethical leadership and intention to sabotage was investigated in Jordan. The study relied on social learning theory (Bandura, 1977; 1986), reinforcement theory (Skinner, 1938), and conservation of resource theory (Hobfoll, 1988). Methodology. A quantitative method with survey questionnaires were distributed to 376 employees in different universities, public and private, in northern Jordan to obtain data. The following variables were part of the self-administered survey developed for the purposes of this study: “ethicalleadership” (10-item scale); “tolerance to workplace incivility” (8-item scale); “the intention to sabotage” (8-item scale). Data were analyzed with SPSS and structural equation modeling with AMOS. Findings. A significant and direct negative relationship was found between ethical leadership and employees’ intention to sabotage in Jordan. Also, a significant and direct positive effect was found between tolerance to workplace incivility and employees’ intention to sabotage, which indicates that tolerance to incivility increases intention to sabotage in Jordan. Further, it was found that tolerance to workplace incivility partially mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and employees’ intention to sabotage in Jordan. Value of results. This paper improves the understanding of workplaces in Jordanian universities and facilitates the creation of healthier work environments. The findings also contribute to several fields of organizational research, such as: human resources management, organizational development, and organizational behavior. The findings have many theoretical and practical implications, which were discussed. Perceived organisational support as a mediator of the relationship between psychological contract and organisational citizenship behaviour Purpose. This study analyses the effect that fulfilment of psychological contract has on the organisational citizenship behaviour of employee. This effect is probed with regard to the mediation effect of an alternative theory of perceived organisational support. Study design. Drawing data from various educational institutions across India the study used survey questionnaire on a populationof 350 faculties and 60 deans (supervisor) dyad. Total sample size of the study was 400 from which 100 were supervisors and 300 employees. Out of total sample 220 were male and 180 females. It was using quantitative and qualitative method for data analysis and interpretation. For measurement scales adopted are D. W. Organ’s scale (for measuring organisational citizenship behaviour), D. M. Rousseau’s PCF scale (for evaluating fulfilment of contract) and R. Eisenberger’s scale (for measuring perceived support from organisation). Findings. It was found that fulfilment of psychological contract has asignificant positive impact on organisational citizenship behaviour and perceived organisational support. Employee commitments to organisational outcomes may be achieved through setting and actualization of psychological contracts. The study also confirmed the mediating effect of perceived organisational support on the relationship between these two variables. Originality. The originality of the paper lies in the application of the theoretical framework of organisational support to psychological contract instead of using the social exchange theory as used by most researchers. Role of workplace ostracism and self-esteem on workplace deviance Being ostracized and resulting in interpersonal or organizational deviance is a pinching topic in research as well as in the practical world. Purpose. The present study analyses the relationship between workplace ostracism and two types of workplace deviance, i.e., interpersonal deviance (workplace incivility, workplace bullying, violence, workplace harassment, social undermining, organizational mobbing) and organizational deviance (work behavior deviated from certain norms), and examines theunexplored moderating role of self-esteem between these relationships. Study design. The respondents of the study were various managerial level employees from the food and textile sectors of Pakistan. Data from 380 employees were collected through a closed-ended, self-administered five-point Likert scaleusing employee intercept convenience-based sampling technique due to unavailability of the samplingframe. The partial least squares structural equation modelling (SEM) approach was utilized through SmartPLS software for quantitative results. Findings. Findings of the study revealed that ostracism isa significant factor in interpersonal and organizational deviance, but it seemed that organizational deviance is more strongly affected by ostracism. The subsequent results also justify that self-esteem is avaluable factor for these circumstances of deviance and ostracism. These findings direct the practitioners to nurture a positive work environment to mitigate the negative impact of ostracism. Value of results. Furthermore, off the job, social interactions and activities may bring employees closer to each other, reducing the chances of ostracism and raising self-esteem in employees. Mediating role of deep and surface acting between display rules and job satisfaction among customer services representatives Purpose. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the mediating role of emotional labor strategies between display rule demands and job satisfaction among customer services employees. Methodology. The present study used a cross-sectional survey research design. Self-reportmeasures in English language including Emotion Work Requirement Scale (Best et al., 1997); Emotional Labor Scale (Brotheridge, Lee, 2003); and job satisfaction subscale of Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire (Camman et al., 1979) were used to operationalize the focal constructs of the present study in a purposive sample (N = 232) of customer services employees of banking and telecommunication sectors from Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Sargodha cities of Pakistan. Findings. Path analysis through Amos revealed that integrative display rules had a positive direct influence on deepacting and job satisfaction, whereas emotional masking had a positive direct influence on surface acting. Surface acting not only demonstrated the negative direct effect on job satisfaction but also fully mediated between emotional masking and job satisfaction. Research limitations. Owing to the self-report data and survey research design, the findings of the present study did not delineate the causal effects. However,our results do suggest that integrative display rules should be made explicit in customer services sothat customer services employee regulate their emotions through deep acting. Emotional masking, on the other hand, should be discouraged as it may lead the employees to surface act, which in turn may reduce their job satisfaction. Value of the results. The present research empirically demonstrated that customer services employees following emotional masking display rules were more likely to engage insurface acting, which in turn may jeopardize their job satisfaction. Therefore, service organizations must promote integrative display rules and deep acting for the emotional regulation of customer services employees. Interaction between manager and young professionals about their professional mistakes: An analysis using the focus group method The article presents the study of the interaction between managers and their young subordinates where both sides discuss the subordinate’s mistake. Purpose. The purpose of the study is to determine the psychological characteristics of such an interaction. Method. As a research method four focus groups for managers and their young subordinates have been used. All participants (N = 34) work in different branches at the Ural commercial and industrial company (Ekaterinburg, Kazan, Naberezhnye Chelny, Ufa, Tyumen and Perm). Each focus group was conducted remotely and lasted for 1.5 hours. The following variables were recorded for analysis: 1) the type of behavior of young subordinates (proactive or reactive); 2) interaction strategies (“win —win” or “win — lose”), 3) willingness of subordinates to acquire new knowledge through error analysis; 4) consistency of the positions of the leader and subordinate; 5) both sides’ mistakes in planning, organization of work and control. The total number of collected statements in the focus groups of managers turned out to be twice as high as the statements of young professionals. Findings. Two significant differences were revealed in the positions of managers and subordinates. They are the following: a) a different understanding of what kind of behavior is expected from a young employee — proactive or reactive; b) different attitudes towards compliance with organizational norms and standards. In addition, managers have shown that they do not have, or at least are not able to explicitly formulate their strategy for dealing with their subordinate’s mistakes. At the same time, they expect a “win — win” interaction strategy from him. Young subordinates also do not have sufficient competence to implement the win — win strategy when discussing their mistakes with the manager. The recommendations formulated based on the results of the study emphasize the importance of prescribing a strategy that is clear to managers for their work with the mistakes of a subordinate and an attentive attitude to his skills in planning, organizing and controlling work. As one of the effective tools, an algorithm for joint error analysisis proposed that allows you to transfer the conversation from an emotional plane to a constructive one. Practical value of the results and perspectives of the study. At the stage of professional growth, young specialists form the prerequisites for a strategy of systematic concealment of mistakes. This strategy’s psychological indicators are not only the fear of possible punishment, but also the lack of effective communicative, organizational, and operational competencies in both participants in the interaction “manager — specialist». In addition to the recommendations, this study allowed us totest the scenario of a focus group in organizational conditions, which can be used by organizational psychologists, consultants, personnel managers to identify contradictions in critical interactions abouterrors in the workplace. The recommendations proposed in the article may be relevant in the context of organizational changes, when employees’ errors become almost inevitable since the organization is implementing a new strategy. More in-depth research is needed to better understand the links between career orientations of a young specialist and his or her attitudes towards the “win — win” strategy in interaction with the employer. How can organizational social capital contribute to commitment profiles: evidence from Pakistan ifinancial firms Purpose. This study aims to extend the knowledge on the relationship between organizational social capital (OSC), characterized by information sharing, trust, and shared vision within the company and organizational commitment, by testing the impact OSC on OC constructed as a series of latent profiles. Methodology. The data were collected from 585 employees working for two Pakistani financial services firms regulated by the Pakistani State Central Bank and analyzed via confirmatory factor analysis, latent profile analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Findings. Results revealed six latent profiles of organizational commitment among staff members. Weakly committed employees were mostly those whose careers plateaued. Highly committed workers were divided into two groups, lack of job alternatives serving as a dissimilarity indicator. OSC affects the development of commitment profiles in different ways. Information sharing and shared vision in the firm positively predict membership in more desirable commitment profiles, while trust is critical only for moderately and highly committed employees. Implications for practice. The study provides empirical evidence concerning how managers can foster desirable commitment profiles through the development of OSC dimensions in non-Western organizational settings. Value of the results. This study extends social capital theory and its cross-cultural studies by demonstrating new relationships between commitment profiles and the dimensions of OSC. The findings highlight the importance of separating continuance commitment into high sacrifices and the perceived lack of job alternatives in developing countries. Employee engagement: systematization of approaches to the definition and measurement The popularity of the concept of employee engagement in the scientific community hasgrown significantly over the past few decades, many large companies have implemented it in practice, conducting regular engagement surveys. However, there is still no common understanding of the  essence of this phenomenon, what it consists of, what factors influence its formation and how to measureit. Purpose. The purpose of the article is to systematize the approaches to defining and measuring employee engagement, proposed in scientific and professional publications, as well as to discuss methodological challenges and prospects in connection with the transformation of the context of work. Method. The first part of the article examines the most famous scientific approaches to the definition of engagement at work and related constructs, factors, and models of involvement, including appliedones, used by consulting companies. The second part focuses on the measurement of engagement. The third part discusses the new challenges facing employee engagement researchers and practitioners in the face of changing working conditions, most notably the wide spread use of digital technology and remote working accelerated by COVID-19 pandemic. The article is based on a review of scientific andprofessional literature and contains several elements of novelty. Findings. For the first time, a detailedanalysis of the main theoretical approaches to interpreting and measuring the “employee engagement” construct presented in foreign and domestic literature was carried out; the characteristics of the employee engagement models of consulting companies, which are used by practitioners in the field of organizational psychology, and human resource management, are given; the challenges in the field of conceptualization and methodology for measuring the employee engagement in the new conditions of doing business and organizing work were described. Value of results. The scientific significance of the article lies in the systematization of various areas of theoretical and empirical studies in foreign and domestic literature on employee engagement. HR managers can get from the article valuablein formation about the specific approaches of consulting companies involved in conducting employee engagement surveys, which can be used to interpret their results, and to design their own engagement surveys taking into account the company’s characteristics. Adaptation of the work alienation measurement questionnaire for the russian-speaking sampling The relevance of the work is due to the lack of a Russian-language tool that would be designed to measure work alienation and adequate for research in the field of labor psychology. Purpose. The purpose of the work is to adapt and test the Work Alienation Assessment Questionnaire in the context of Russian-language culture. Method. The adaptation sample consisted of 230 employees of socionomic professions at the age of 20 to 27 years. As part of the adaptation of the Work Alienation Assessment Questionnaire (Fragebogen zur arbeitsbezogenen Entfremdung und Aneignung, FAEA) (Aigner etal., 2015), an asymmetric translation was made from German into Russian. As additional methods tocheck the validity of the questionnaire scales, we used the subscale “work” of the subjective alienation questionnaire, the scale of satisfaction of basic needs at work, the work engagement scale. Findings. The questionnaire scales show high reliability and consistency, as well as high retest reliability with a measurement interval of one month. The factor structure is fully consistent with the author’s model. A one-factor structure was obtained for the scale “Alienation and appropriation of work: work in general” and the scale “Alienation and appropriation of work: concrete job”. For the scale “Alienation and assignment of work — satisfaction of needs”, a three-factor structure was confirmed separately for thespheres of work, organization, and relations. Value of results. Checking the competitive, constructive, and criterial validity of the questionnaire scales is confirmed and consistent with the author’s version. The customized questionnaire is a reliable and valid measurement tool for assessing work alienation. Communicative and psychological portrait of a female leader Purpose. The purpose of the study is to determine the specifics of the feminine management style, to describe the main features of the communicative behavior of women leaders. To achieve this goal, interviews with six female heads of transport companies were reviewed. The analysis assumed the identification of key ideas in the respondents’ statements related to the speakers’ understanding of their experience in managing the company, as well as evaluating themselves in the position of a leader. Methodology. The methodological basis of the study is the methods of thematic and comparative analysis. The theoretical basis of this article consists of works on gender leadership issues by both domestic and foreign authors. Findins. Thematic analysis of empirical data allowed us to identify six key ideas that make up the semantic “framework” of respondents’ statements. These topics are “Leadership self-determination”, “Leadership and gender”, “Recipes for female leadership”, “Leadership as the ability totransform the world”, “Leadership as power over people”, “Career and personal life”. The composition of the headings and the content of these topics indicate that women managers are aware of the features of their management model. On the one hand, the female leadership style involves the use of typically male communication strategies (result orientation, rationalism, clear hierarchy in the company). On the other hand, the behavior of female leaders includes other traits, that are different from masculine: establishing emotional contact with subordinates and clients, empathy. Consequently, the specificity of the feminine management style is not only in the use of tactical and strategic thinking, but also in the use of developed emotional intelligence. A woman leader is characterized by a combination of two instruments for influencing colleagues and partners — authority and feminine charm. The value of the results. The study revealed the personal qualities of women that allow them to take leading positionsin traditionally male areas of production: an urgent need for social and professional success; internal willingness to compete with men; the ability to create and manage a functional team of professionals; flexibility in the choice of methods of influence and decision-making. Holistic view of unethical pro-organizational behavior: literature review Purpose. The current study aims to use existing literature to examine the antecedents and constraints of new constructs, namely unethical yet beneficial for the organization. Approach. We conducted an extensive literature review of 46 published papers between 2010 and 2020 using multiple sources such as Web of Science and Scopus. Findings. Literature addressed two essential characteristics of unethical behavior within an organization. Initially, market intensity, followed by misleading favorable to hierarchical behavior, known as unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB). Findings also suggestthat to eliminate such behavioral inclinations, organizations should clearly communicate their valuesand goals. Implications for practice. The current study has a lot of management implications. As past literature implies that employees are more likely to engage in UPB, firms must ensure that systems are inplace to limit the chance that workers would engage in such conduct, considering it is potential to harman organization’s reputation.