Organizational Psychology, 2022 (4) en-us Copyright 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 20:41:48 +0300 Editorial Professional career as a phenomenon: open questions. Part 1 The first article discusses the history, scientific traditions, approaches to the study of professional career in foreign and domestic psychology. Several little-studied and debatable aspects of the problem are defined as open questions. Purpose. The purpose of the study: the study of professional career as a historically evolving phenomenon. Hypotheses: 1. In different conditions of the social environment (historical, geographical, economic, professional and technological, corporate culture of the organization, etc.), the professional career phenomenon manifests itself in different ways in its general, special and individual properties. 2. Representatives of different social groups perceive the professional career phenomenon in different ways. 3. In the subject’s professional picture of the world, professional career can take on different forms and meanings (depending on age, social experience, professional qualifications, etc.). Methods. A historical-theoretical analysis and a subject-categorical analysis were used. Findings. In conclusion of the first article, it is stated that the phenomenon of “professional career” is usually considered outside the aspects of its historical evolution; the few “classical” approaches that have previously developed are historically transitory, but act as prototypes for subsequent concepts; by the middle of the twentieth century. The interval of professional and official promotion of a person has expanded; to the beginning of the XXI century. The forms of professional activity and employment of people and the manifestation of the professional career phenomenon have expanded; social technologies for career management are being developed, aimedat helping representatives of different social groups; the possibility of different “starting positions” and career trajectories for different people is substantiated. The expansion of concepts describing the manifestations of the phenomenon requires critical analysis and methodological “audit”. Binarythinking remains an ideological and methodological barrier, dividing the phenomenon into oppositeparts, the study of a career within the framework of the paradigm of individual rather than joint activity; the role of negative circumstances, life and professional crises remains outside the subject field. It is believed that a constructive methodology will be an appeal to the “systemic triads” approach, suitablefor developing spatial, temporal, and other aspects of the problem; to the resource approach (the topics of “phase transitions”, active interaction of a person with the conditions of the social environment). The impact of work-family balance on manufacturing employees’ mental health during pandemic Purpose. The study aimed to measure the impact of manufacturing employees’ high workpressure on the urge for their family-life balance, and the impact of high work-life pressure and the urge for family-life balance on manufacturing employees’ concern for mental health during COVID-19 pandemic from an emerging economy perspective. Methodology. The study has picked 20 items underthree different variables such as work-life, family-life, and mental health. The structured questionnaire has been developed based on the literature survey and divided into two parts. The initial part hascontained demographic information and the second part has contained measure items of the model. The questionnaire has been designed through Google Docs and distributed via Facebook messenger, E-mail, WhatsApp, IMO, etc. 400 data was collected through the snowball sampling technique and 201 data (response rate 50.25%) was found usable for the research. The exploratory factor analysis, confirmatoryfactor analysis, and structural equation modeling were run to test the proposed research framework with the help of MS Excel 2007, SPSS 22.0, and AMOS 23.0. Finding. The findings revealed that highwork-life pressure had a positive significant impact on the urge for family-life balance and both the highwork-life pressure and urge for family-life balance had a positive significant impact on manufacturing employees’ concern for mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality. The novelty of thisresearch is the manufacturing employees’ context during the COVID-19 pandemic. Relationship between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction among educrats Purpose. The purpose of this research is to investigate the relation between psychological empowerment (meaning, self-determination, competence, and impact) and job satisfaction. It also attempts to evaluate the disparity in both psychological empowerment and job satisfaction based on demographic variables such as age, work experience, designation, and institutional affiliation. This article will greatly improve our understanding of psychological empowerment and job satisfactionin the education industry, particularly for educrats. Research design. This study’s sample consisted of 400 full-time Indian educrats working in various higher education institutions. The psychological empowerment scale developed by G. M. Spreitzer and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire short form developed by D. J. Weiss, R. V. Dawis, and G. W. England were used to measure psychological empowerment and job satisfaction respectively. The significance and strength of the relationship between psychological empowerment (meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact) and job satisfaction were determined using statistical techniques such as correlation and multiple regression analysis. The ANOVA technique is used to assess the impact of various demographic variables on psychological empowerment and job satisfaction. SPSS software was used for analysis. Findings. Meaning, self-determination, and impact were found to be positively correlated with job satisfaction. However, there is no correlation between competence and job satisfaction. Further analysis revealed that all dimensions of psychological empowerment except competence predict job satisfaction. Also, significant differences are found for psychological empowerment and job satisfaction across different demographic variables. Originality. This is first of it’s kind of research which focuses on educrats’s psychological empowerment in higher education institutions. Leadership styles: The role of emotional intelligence inIndian IT companies Purpose. The present research aims to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership styles — transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and laissez-faire leadership. Design. The sample was taken from IT professionals of the NCR region of India, and standardized instruments used for data collection include “The assessing emotions scale” and “Multifactor leadership questionnaire”. The collected data was analyzed using SmartPLS 2.0 and SPSS 23. Findings. Findingsrevealed that there exists a relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership. The results indicated that all the three leadership styles: transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and laissez-faire leadership, are affected by emotional intelligence. The most substantial relationshipof emotional intelligence was discovered with transformational leadership and the weakest with transactional leadership. Practical implication. This study suggests that the organizations should recruit managers with high emotional intelligence level to improve performance and provide training to improve the emotional intelligence level of employees. Originality and value of results. There is previous research focusing on a leader’s emotional intelligence and leadership styles on organizational performance. However, the current area of interest is the role of emotional intelligence in leadership styles. Trait emotional intelligence among hierarchical levels of leadership Purpose. This study examined whether trait emotional intelligence (or emotional self-efficacy) can differentiate across leadership levels in a sample of senior, middle, and junior leaders, employed by a bank organization in Greece (N = 157). Method. For the objectives of this study, the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) short form (Petrides, 2009) was sufficient. It includes 30 items from the full form (two items for each of the 15 facets) and can be used to measure the four components generated from the full form: emotionality, self-control, sociability, and well-being, as well as the global trait emotional intelligence. Age, gender, tenure, and education level were used as control variables. Traitemotional intelligence, age and education were significant predictors in a multinomial regression model. Findings. Regarding senior leaders, the odds were significantly higher for each unit increase in trait EI(5.58) than for middle leaders (1.92), with junior leaders as the reference category. Further, leadersscored significantly higher on trait emotional intelligence compared to the standardization sample of the TEIQue. Τhe difference is due to senior and middle leaders, though the effect size for the former was considerably larger than for the latter, whereas junior leaders did not show statistically significant differences. Trait emotional intelligence and four factors’ impacts (self-control, well-being, emotionality, and sociability) were investigated among the three hierarchical leadership levels. Value of results. The results support the notion that leadership positions require high trait emotional intelligence and that leadership needs are dependent on the leader’s level within the organization. The mediator role of personal growth initiative in the effect of career satisfaction on task and contextual performance Introduction. This study provides new insights into the impact of career satisfaction on performance through a multi-dimensionality approach, and a mediator variable. Objective. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between career satisfaction, personal growth initiative, task performance, and contextual performance. Method. The research was designed with a quantitative and correlational method. Data were collected from 213 public and private sector employees workingin different cities and occupational groups in Turkey. Hypotheses of the research were tested by bootstrapping regression analysis performed with 5000 derivative samples. Results. Career satisfaction contributes positively to explaining personal growth initiative, task performance, and contextual performance. Besides, the personal growth initiative makes a positive contribution to explaining task performance and contextual performance. In addition, the most important finding of the study is that personal growth initiative positively mediates the effect of career satisfaction on task performance andcontextual performance. Another original output of the study is the adaptation of task performance and contextual performance scales used in the research into Turkish. Conclusion. In order to fulfill the requirements of the changing business life, employees must first be aware of their own needs, give importance to their personal development to meet these needs, and be on a career path where they willfeel satisfied. On the other hand, managers should implement various approaches that will understand their employees’ career and personal development expectations. Precarity index for psychological studies of the Russian labour market (in Russian) Purpose. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the Precarity Index scale, present its psychometric characteristics, identify psychological and biographical correlates of precarity, and compare different types of employment at the Russian labour market. Method. The sample consistedof 495 people between 30 and 45 years who were included in four types of employment: permanent; fixed-term (one–three years); temporary (less than one year); and casual, short-term employment. Results. The precarious employment attributes have been analyzed both in foreign and domestic approaches. The key attributes are highlighted, and Precarity Index scale is proposed. It includes 13 items to assess current and expected employment characteristics. The hypotheses of construct validity and empirical validity of Precarity Index have been confirmed. Its psychological correlates are experience of job insecurity and forced employment, perception of career development barriers, and deprivation of the psychological benefits which a standard employment relationship includes. Different types of employment have different levels of precarity. Full-time permanent employment hasthe lowest level, casual (short-term) employment has the highest one. The unemployment periods in career and the frequency of job changes during the past three years are the biographical correlates of Precarity Index. Conclusions. The scale has acceptable psychometric properties, construct validity and empirical validity. The Precarity Index can be considered as employment uncertainty for specific individuals and groups, it reflects the history and current quality of their employment. It is proved that the psychological functional structure of precarious work differs from a stable work a lot. There has been made a conclusion that a finer differentiation between casual and temporary (less than one year) employment is needed; the further analysis of informal employment as a component of the Precarity index is needed. Value of results. The Precarity Index is a new instrument to measure a set of behavioural and subjective characteristics of employment. It provides a new perspective to evaluate organizations, social, age, and professional groups in terms of employment quality. The scale has an interdisciplinary potential; it may be useful for sociologists and economists, human resource managers. The emergenceof a compact scale measuring precarity is an important step in the study of human adaptation to different types of employment at the Russian labour market. Revisiting performance appraisal measurement: Construction and validation of Rater Bias Scale Given the importance of the performance appraisal system and despite continued discussions and efforts to ensure the quality of supervisor rating in the appraisal system, rater effects are still pervasive and continue to undermine the validity and credibility of the appraisal system. Purpose. Thisstudy aimed to develop and validate Rater Bias Scale for the detection and control of rater effects in performance appraisal system. Method. Extensive review of literature was conducted. Separate datawere collected for exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Samples consisted of diverse academics and professional managers who have been involved in performance ratings in their career. Findings. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted on the data revealed eight major dimensions of rater bias with 24 items, three items for each dimension. The scale demonstrates high content reliabilityand convergent and discriminant validities. Value of the results. Using configural and metric invariance, as well as chi-square and one-way ANOVA, the scale displays conceptual equivalence across diverse group. Implications for research and practice. The study has important implications for detecting and controlling supervisor errors in performance appraisal for research and practice. The study contributes to the literature and practice of human resource management in organisation. Limitations of the studyare highlighted and potential problem in its administration are discussed. How to interpret employee engagement scores in companies (in Russian) Purpose. The purpose of the article is to clarify how to interpret employee engagement scores resulting from corporate employee engagement surveys. Method. The key academic papers in the field of employee engagement are addressed in the article. Consulting approaches to employee engagementare reviewed. The gap between academia and practice in studying engagement is discussed. Due to many methods offered to the companies to study employee engagement, the decision was made to analyze four techniques of major providers: two international (Gallup, Aon Hewitt) and two Russian (ECOPSY Consalting, Happy Inc). Findings. The variety of approaches to defining employee engagement in academic discourse is followed by many different methodologies to study it in practice. The review of consulting approaches to measure engagement has resulted in a suggestion to identify two types of employee engagement surveys: surveys focused at analyzing drivers of engagement and surveys focused at analyzing engagement as a multidimensional construct of relations between employees and organizations. The type of a survey that a company uses determines the interpretation of the employee engagement score. In the first case, the engagement score reflects the extent to which the environment for the development of engagement is formed but does not reflect the real level of employee engagement. In the second case, the engagement score cannot be unambiguously interpreted without taking into consideration the indicators of those components of engagement that were included in the employee engagement score and their theoretical basis. Value of the results. The theoretical contribution of the paper is to suggest a critical perspective on practical instruments of studying engagement. An attempt ismade to classify corporate engagement surveys. Implications for practice. This work can help managers and HR practitioners to interpret employee engagement scores more precisely and to make correct managerial decisions based on them. Personal innovativeness in the extended technology acceptance model (in Russian) According to M. Crozier, a leading French specialist in the field of sociology of organizations, “in the modern competitive struggle, first of all, the struggle is not for the possession of resources, material values, but for the ability to innovate” (Crozier, Tilliette, 1995). The role of personality “as an objectand subject of change” in the process of innovations in organizations is enormous but received littleattention in the context of information technologies usage and had not been examined in sufficient detail. Purpose. The purpose of the study is to investigate the contribution of components of the innovative potential of a worker and innovative disposition as factors that can explain patterns of organizational behavior associated with computer systems utilization. Methodology. The construction of multipleregression models for the core constructs of the technology acceptance model (perceived usefulnessand perceived ease of use) with the inclusion of variables-indicators of personal innovativeness andseveral external variables identified in the extended technology acceptance model (subjective norms, job relevance, voluntariness, image, output quality, result demonstrability, computer self-efficacy) met the purpose of the study. Findings. The analysis of regression equations found the specifics of motivational attitudes of our sample representing competent users: only some predictors make a significant contribution in the main components of the model (“job relevance” and “subjective norms” as antecedents of perceived usefulness, “image” and “desire for change” as antecedents of perceivedease of use). Conclusions. A stable personal disposition that characterizes the innovative potential of a worker in relation to software adoption and usage is the “Desire for change”, which turned out to be avaluable empirical finding that contributes to development of promising research directed on deeper understanding of prerequisites that form the motivation to accept computer systems with varied user experience. Trust and faith in business relationships (in Russian) Purpose. The article undertakes a theoretical and methodological analysis of trust and faith in business relations, considering modern changes in the field of personnel management, organizational psychology and the economy as a whole. Method. The place in the system of business relations is specified, as well as the ratio of faith and trust with similar concepts (commitment, loyalty, involvement, reputation, etc.). The main stages of building trusting business relations are highlighted, which, with their strongseverity, can grow into faith. Different «addressees» of trust and faith are also determined, ranging from specific people (including faith in oneself), and ending with faith in the «power» of the existing orders of business relations enshrined in laws, orders, traditions. Separately, the relationship between differentvariants of faith in the nature of production and the corresponding production relations is considered,taking into account changes in the minds of most people in the modern era. Finding. A comparativetheoretical analysis of the manifestation of trust and faith in organizations with pronounced and lesspronounced labor regulation and strict control over employees is given. Values of results. The assumptionis substantiated that with more strict regulation, the employee often delegates responsibility to externalregulators, respectively, more and trusts them, up to the «deification» of some of the most authoritative colleagues, leaders, and managers, or — more believes in the power of certain models of production organization. And with a weakened external regulation of labor, workers often develop internal means of self-regulation, which sometimes, with a special success of activity, generates confidence in some of them, and in extreme cases, even a conviction that they are helped by some «higher forces». Isomorphism as an interdisciplinary-psychological matrix of analysis of the attitude to nature and health in organizations (on the example of the Baikal region) (in Russian) The appearance in organizations in order to protect the environment and improve human health of natural algorithms of activity and nature-like technologies actualizes the methodological role of analysis of such strategies on the basis of isomorphisma. A multidisciplinary approach to isomorphism, as a matrix for bringing human beings closer to the social, animal and plant world on the basis of natural resources, is particularly important in regions that are monuments to the naturaland cultural heritage of mankind, which Baikal has been advocating since 1996. The algorithms of such analysis will primarily affect the interrelated isomorphic parameters of personality and organization, which are the most significant in their interaction with nature. For a systematic consideration of the problem, it is advisable to combine the main analysis with the search (use) of developments in natural sciences that can function as specific sources of human and organization communication with the natural world; in our case, the provisions of biomimicry: nature as a model, as a measure and as amentor. The analysis also touches on the significant “mechanisms” of adaptation of organizations and people to the implementation of innovative tasks of ensuring natural life and environmental safety — imitative, normative, and forced isomorphism. The core of the interdisciplinary psychological analysisis the socio-psychological concept of one of the authors of the article on the relationship of isomorphic parameters of the community (organization) and personality, modified for environmental activities. It (the relationship) concerns four aspects: firstly, the genetic memory and mental attitudes of people about “oikos” — home, homeland, as the main place of their being; secondly, the unity of the targets of organizations with the motivation of their members to protect nature and promote health; thirdly, ensuring environmental friendliness of actions when implementation of social roles and proactive behavior in formal and informal organizations; fourth, achieving an understanding by members oforganizations and the public of the importance of feedback not only for determining development prospects, but also for assessing the level of activity of subjects in overcoming environmental problems. 24th International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development HSE University is pleased to announce a call for proposals to take part in the 24th International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development (hereinafter the “24th Yasin Conference” or the “Conference”). The Conference will be held jointly with Russian corporations, as well as research and consulting institutions.The key events of the 24th Yasin Conference will be taking place in Moscow from April 4 to 14,2023.