Organizational Psychology

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Evgeny Osin1
  • 1 National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya Str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation

Factor structure of the short version of the Test of hardiness (In Russian)

2013. Vol. 3. No. 3. P. 42–60 [issue contents]

The aim of the study was to develop a brief valid and reliable Russian-language instrument to measure the three components of hardiness proposed by Salvatore Maddi, commitment, control, and challenge. The factorial structure of the short 24-item version (Osin, Rasskazova, 2013) of the Hardiness test (Leontiev, Rasskazova, 2006) is presented. The analysis was based on a large sample of Russian employees (N=4647) with cross-validation in a student sample (N=1285). Structural equation modelling was used to compare different models with 3 correlated content subscales and 2 independent factors modelling response bias. The model developed by theoretical analysis of the item content demonstrated the best fit. The resulting commitment, control, and challenge subscales include 6 to 10 items and demonstrate acceptable reliability (0,67 < α < 0,82). Discriminant validity of the subscales was investigated using simultaneous multiple regression analysis. Commitment was the strongest predictor of intrinsic work and academic motivation, work engagement, positive mood at work, as well as satisfaction with life in general and life meaning. Control was the strongest predictor of general and academic self-efficacy, optimistic attribution of positive situations, and active coping. Challenge was the strongest predictor of tolerance for ambiguity and optimistic attribution of failures. A brief 12-item version of the Hardiness test was also developed for large-scale survey and screening purposes. It exhibited high reliability (α = 0,86) and predictable three-factor structure. The new measurement instruments can be used for fundamental and applied research in organizational, educational, and clinical psychology.

Citation: Osin, E. (2013). Faktornaya struktura kratkoy versii Testa zhiznestoykosti [Factor structure of the short version of the Test of hardiness]. Organizational Psychology (e-journal), 3, 42-60 (in Russian)
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